Causes of Infertility. 5 reasons to start worrying
Since old times people have dreamed about children but, unfortunately, faced infertility. Even children’s fairy-tales tell us about a graybeard and a crone or a king and a queen who’ve desired a baby so much that tried to model a daughter from a snow or cut a boy from a log. Luckily, infertility is not a verdict any more. Nowadays, doctors are ready to undertake the most difficult cases of infertility to give people their own VittoriaVita. But, there is no doubt, the first step of the successful treatment is to detect the causes of infertility and remove them.
If earlier spouses face the horrible diagnosis infertility after 4 years of unsuccessful attempts, nowadays this term is reduced to 2. Different medical researches confirm that it’s much more difficult to treat long-term infertility than recently diagnosed. That’s why, spouses who lead regular (no less than once a week) unprotected sex life for, at least, 2 years should think carefully about their reproductive life. The sooner you do this, the higher chances to become happy parents you will have. Nearly 4,5 mln families face infertility every year. According to the statistics, 5 main causes of infertility are pointed out.
Medical practice confirms that in 40% of all cases fertilization is impossible because of the problems with mobility, activity and viability of man’s cells. That’s why, first of all, man is suggested to pass spermogram – a special analyses which defines amount and activity of his sperm cells. If the quantity of active sperm cells is less than 50%, doctors diagnose male infertility and prescribe additional examinations.
For example, if there is a great amount of leucocytes in the man’s cells, andrologist prescribes bacteriologic examination of sperm cells. It indicates the attendant infections. After its treatment, man has more chances to increase his fertility. If the spermogram shows the huge quantity of abnormal sperm cells, man have to make morphological sperm examination which helps to distinguish the character of the pathology and select the proper treatment.
Since studying biology at school, all of us have remembered the simple “formula”: fertilization happens only by fusion of sperm cell and egg. The second, one of the most wide-spread causes of infertility, is the disorder of the maturation and outlet of the egg. And what are the factors which disturb this process?
To gynecologists’ opinion, the absence of ovulation can be caused by stress, hormone failure, infections or cystic disease of ovaries (the specific disease by which the egg maturation and outlet is impossible). Usually, anovular cycle is characterized by the irregular periods. But cases when women even don’t notice such a problem also often occur. Measuring of basal temperature (during 2-3 cycles), hormone mirror examination and US can help to check this. Only after determining the causes of anovular cycle and treating it, ovulation can be resumed and, in such a way, the chances to become pregnant will be vividly increased.
The third, one of the most frequent causes of infertility is commissural process in the Fallopian (uterine) tubes. Adnexitis, clamidiosis, previous abortions are the factors which influence the patency of tubes as the commissures (appeared as a result of torpid infections) narrow the them making the tubes impassible. In such a way, a mature egg and quite alive sperm cell might even not meet. To check the patency of the Fallopian tubes, gynecologist usually prescribe several examinations e.g. hysterosalpingography ( during this procedure contrast medium is introduced into the uterus and then X-ray image which shows uterine cavity and tubes lumen is made. Of course, much depends on the result of such an examination, but not everything. At long last, tubes impassability is not a verdict. Modern medical technologies allow women who suffer from such a problem to forget about this.
The opportunity to conceive and bear a child much depends on the condition, structure, birth defects of the uterus and also inflammatory changes of endometrium. Myomas, polyps, scars on the uterine walls which appear after the operations, abortions, childbirth can influence on the woman’s possibility to become a mother. The condition of the uterus is checked by hysteroscopy ( a special scope which allow to examine the walls of the uterus, estimate the condition of epithelium, find the tumors and other pathologies which prevent pregnancy is introduced into the uterus). All present tumors are recommended to cancel surgically. After this a course of hormone-replacement therapy is conducted. The main aim of it is to restore the normal hormone background of a woman. When this problem is solved, you can try your luck to conceive again.
15% of infertile pairs are diagnosed to have tissue incompatibility. In other words, there are cases when woman’s immune system reacts too actively to partner’s sperm cells. The reason of this remains unknown but it’s still the fact: when sperm cells get into the vagina, woman’s organism produces the specific antibodies which change the composition of cervical mucus. In such a way, mucus becomes too swampy and sperm cells lose their mobility. If tissue incompatibility is suspected, doctors recommend to pass additional examinations which help to detect the antispermic antibodies in the woman’s organism. Fortunately, tissue incompatibility can be easily overcome by using Intrauterine Insemination when a man’s sperm is introduced straight to the uterus with a help of a special catheter.